Canada has an extensive network of 840,000 kilometres of pipelines carrying crude oil to domestic and U.S. refineries. Wikibuy Review: A Free Tool That Saves You Time and Money, 15 Creative Ways to Save Money That Actually Work. What grades of crude oil can be used to make gasoline? In 2019, Alberta leads the provinces in crude oil production with 80.5% of Canada’s total production, Saskatchewan produced 10.5%, and Newfoundland and Labrador produced 5.6%. This upswing was promptly reversed in Q2, when shipments plummeted to their lowest level since 2016. exciting challenge of being a wiseGEEK researcher and writer. The volume of crude oil exported by rail in the United States increased from nearly 16,000 barrels per day in the first quarter of 2012 to approximately 160,000 barrels per day in 2014. The oil sands account for 12% of Canada’s total GHG emissions and 0.2% of global emissions. From 2000 to 2018 the emission intensity of oil sands operations dropped by approximately 36% as a result of technological and efficiency improvements, fewer venting emissions and reductions in the percentage of crude bitumen being upgraded to synthetic crude oil. It is commonly known as sweet crude and it is easier to extract, process and transport. In 2019, oil sands production was 2.9 million barrels per day compared to 1.7 million barrels per day of conventional oil production (including tight oil). Sweet Crude Oil contains very less amounts of sulfur and related contents such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. There is currently great potential for shale oil and light tight oil resources in Canada and the U.S. Products refined from this type of oil are particularly prized as lubricants and many oil companies prominently display the fact that they use Pennsylvania Grade crude oil in their products. " His success led to "an international search for petroleum, and in many ways eventually changed the way we live. Light crude is crude oil that has a low percentage of wax. Due to the regional nature of Canadian refining markets, Canada also imports some crude oil. Some forms of crude oil are considered more valuable than others, with light sweet crude typically commanding the highest prices on the market. It is also high in paraffin and other waxes making it highly desirable for refinement into petroleum lubricants such as motor oil. 162 billion are oil sands and 5.7 billion barrels are conventional. Large deposits of light sweet crude oil are found in Alaska. to the U.S. Midwest, North America’s largest pipeline company and largest transporter of refined products, Trans Mountain Line: capacity to transport 300,000b/d from Edmonton to British Columbia (crude oil and petroleum products), Puget Sound System: via the Trans Mountain Line ships crude oil from Abbotsford, BC to Washington State with a capacity of 180,000b/d, Cochin Pipeline: transports diluents from Illinois to Fort Saskatchewan with a capacity of 95,000b/d, Second-largest oil pipeline system in western Canada, 9 pipelines for conventional and unconventional oil, Bitumen Line: from Fort McMurray to Edmonton, Crude oil ships from Portland, Maine to Montréal, Keystone Pipeline (2010): capacity to transport 591,000b/d of oil from Hardisty, Alta. Mary McMahon . Pennsylvania Grade Crude Oil was first extracted from the Drake Well, which was drilled by Edwin Drake in "the middle of quiet farm country in northwestern Pennsylvania" in 1859. Source: National Energy Board. Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the Pennsylvania Grade Crude Oil: the first well, Pennsylvania Grade Crude Oil: the first oil boom, Last edited on 2 September 2016, at 00:51, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pennsylvania_Grade_Crude_Oil&oldid=737316823, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 September 2016, at 00:51. In 2019, seven mining projects in Alberta produced approximately 1.61 million barrels a day: Athabasca Oil Sands Project – Muskeg River (159 Mb/d) and Jackpine Mine (130 Mb/d), 50% of current production and 80% of resources. Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a wiseGEEK researcher and writer. The oil sands accounted for 63% of Canada’s oil production in 2019 or 2.95 million barrels per day. It also has a lower sulfur content, coming in around 0.25%. This is the type of crude oil most common in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Southern United States. Similarly, the monthly average price of West Texas Intermediate had a range of 16.7 dollars to 133.9 dollars. In 2019, 46% of the raw bitumen produced was sent for upgrading in Alberta, Major companies with upgrading capacity include Syncrude, Suncor, Shell, Canadian Natural Resources, Husky and Nexen-CNOOC, Total upgrading capacity in Canada of 1.33 million barrels per day, Mainline: Alberta to the U.S. Midwest and Ontario. Because this oil has so many useful traits, it is often a very desirable product, with many refineries preferring to work with it oil whenever possible. Oil sands production has generally been increasing since 2006, peaking at 2.9 million barrels per day in 2019. Synthetic Crude Oil (SCO) is a light sweet crude produced through the upgrading of bitumen. Canada produces more oil than it consumes and as a result, is a significant net exporter of crude oil. The total mineable area is 4,800 squared kilometers, and the total area being mined is 953 squared kilometers. Between 2008 and 2020, the monthly average price of Brent had a range of 18.4 dollars to 132.7 dollars. Pennsylvania grade crude oil when seen in reflected sunlight has a green color and under ultraviolet light looks fluorescent. There are two methods of extracting bitumen from the oil sands: the mining method and the in situ method.  The area's Pennsylvania Grade Crude Oil has superior qualities and is free of asphaltic constituents, contains only trace amounts of sulfur and nitrogen, and has excellent characteristics for refining into lubricants. Crude oil can only be termed as sweet crude if its sulfur contents are less than 0.5%. The estimated rail loading capacity out of western Canada in 2019 was approximately 2.8 million barrels per day. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors. It has low-sulfur content of 0.54% and API gravity of 48.2°. * Reserves known to exist and recoverable under current technological and economic conditions spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors. More than 20 projects in Alberta – largest in 2019 were Firebag and MacKay River (Suncor) at 217 Mb/d, Christina Lake (Cenovus) at 159 Mb/d, Foster Creek (Cenovus) at 159 Mb/d and Cold Lake (Imperial Oil) at 142 Mb/d. Kerosene is a light sweet crude oil. This is in contrast with heavy crude, which is thicker and of generally lower quality. Although total U.S. crude oil production generally declined between 1985 and 2008, annual production increased nearly each year from 2009 through 2019, reaching the highest amount on record in 2019. Learn more about upgrading and petroleum products in Canada. Crude oil, also known as petroleum, is an energy-rich liquid consisting mainly of hydrocarbons. condensates), and sold directly to refineries capable of processing heavier oils. In 2019, Canada’s proven reserves of crude oil totals 167.7 billion barrels. Sweet crude is a form of crude oil that has a sulfur content below 0.5%. Find out how Canada’s crude oil ranks on an international scale: * includes crude oil, NGL, additives and other hydrocarbons (including the receipts of additives), ** Saudi Arabia and Kuwait reserves include the Saudi-Kuwaiti “neutral zone,” with total proved reserves of 5 billion barrels, * Shale formations are a subset of low permeability tight oil formations. Learn more about the open-pit mining process. Although many consumers think that most crude oil is essentially the same, in fact there are a number of classifications for crude oil which are used to divide the oil by impurities and consistency. Sweet Crude Oil is a type of crude oil that is determined based on its sulfur content. The Permian (largely in West Texas), the Bakken (North Dakota, Montana, Saskatchewan, Manitoba) and the Eagle Ford (south Texas) tight oil formations are the largest sources of tight oil production in North America. Is gasoline made from lower grades of crude worse for your engine since they have more impurities? The surface area of Canada’s oil sands resources is 142,200 squared kilometers and is largely found in Alberta. WTI crude oil as a trade grade. upgrading and petroleum products in Canada, regional nature of Canadian refining markets, International Energy Agency Online Data Services, Oil and Gas Journal (Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production), Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers Statistical Handbook table 2.6 (Crude Oil Remaining Established Reserves), table 2.1a (Crude Reserves), Alberta Energy Regulator ST98 (Alberta's Energy Reserves and Supply/Demand Outlook) table R4.5 (Conventional crude oil reserves as of each year-end), R3.2 (Reserve and production change highlights), table 1 (Resources, reserves and production summary), Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers Statistical Handbook table 1.2 (2017 Drilling activity), Statistic Canada International Merchandise Trade Database, United States Energy Information Administration (Imports by Country of Origin, Refining and Processing, total crude oil and products, consumption/sales), United States Energy Information Administration tables (Spot Prices for Crude Oil).
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